How electric car works?

Updated: May 29, 2019

Some of the components that makes a vehicle an electric vehicle are:

The induction motor, inverter, Lithium-Ion battery, Power source, and above all, the synchronised vehicle mechanism.

1. Induction motor: Magnetic legs that dont stop.

The induction Motor has two main parts. The stator and the rotor. The rotor is simply a collection of conducting bars short-circuited by end rings. A three-phase AC power input is given to the stator. The three-phase alternating current in the coils produces a rotating magnetic field. The motor produces a four-pole magnetic field. This rotating magnetic field that induces current on the rotor bars to make it turn. In an induction motor, the rotor always lags behind the RMF.


An induction motor has neither brushes nor a permanent magnet. At the same time, it is robust and sturdy. The beauty of an induction motor is that. Its speed depends on the frequency of the AC power supply. So just by varying the rate of the power supply, we will be able to alter the drive wheel speed. This simple fact makes electric car speed, control easy and reliable.

The motor supply is from a variable frequency drive, which in turn controls motor speed. The motor speed can range from zero to 18,000 rpm. This is the most sizeable advantage electric cars have when compared to internal combustion cars. An Internal Combustion engine produces usable torque and power output only within a limited speed range. Therefore, directly connecting the engine rotation to the drive wheel is not a smart idea.

so now from this step transmission comes into play

2. Transmission: You give me the power, i'll manage it.

Transmission must be introduced to vary the drive wheel speed. On the other hand, an induction motor will work efficiently in any speed range. Thus no varying speed transmission is needed for an electric car.

3. Battery: Heart that runs out of blood after workout.

The battery produces DC power, so before supply get to a motor, it has to be converted to AC. An inverter is used for this purpose. This power electronic device also controls the Ac power frequency, thus controlling the motor speed. Moreover, the Inverter can even vary the amplitude of the Ac power. Which in turn will control the motor power output. Thus the inverter acts as the brain of the electric car. You will be amazed to find that they are just a collection of common lithium-ion cells similar to those used in your daily life. The cells are connected in a combination of series and parallel to produce the power required to run your electric car.

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